Frontiers and the State in Early Islamic History: Jihad Between Caliphs and Volunteers,” History Compass, vol. 9 (2011), 634-43.

Reprinted in The Caliphate and Islamic Statehood: Formation, Fragmentation and Modern Interpretations, edited by Carool Kersten, (Berlin: Gerlach Press, 2015), 1:76-86.


The Gate of Iron: The Making of the Eastern Frontier,” University of Michigan, 2010.

Book Reviews

Arezou Azad, Sacred Landscapes in Medieval Afghanistan: Revisiting the Fada’il-i Balkh, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013) in The Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. 74 (2015), 366-8.

Milka Levy-Rubin, Non-Muslims in the Early Islamic Empire: From Surrender to Coexistence, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011) in Middle East Media and Book Reviews Online, vol. 1 (2013).

Encyclopedia Entries

Farighunids,” Encyclopaedia of Islam, Three, (Leiden: Brill, 2015), vol. 2015-4, pp. 132-4.

`Amr b. al-Layth,” Encyclopaedia of Islam, Three, (Leiden: Brill, 2010), vol. 2010, pp. 91-2.

with Sussan Babaie, “Isfahan x. Monuments,” Encyclopaedia Iranica, (New York: Encyclopaedia Iranica Foundation, 2007), 14:6-40.